K. Plantae (Plants)

Plants are divided into either vascular or non-vascular.

Vascular tissue is used by vascular plants to transport H20 and other nutrients.

There are two types:

Xylem is for transporting H20 and other nutrients such as ions and inorganic material.

Phloem is for transporting glucose and other organic material.

Non-vascular plants are known as Bryophytes. They are primitive, small, near water and damp environments. This includes plant groups such as liver worts, hornworts, and mosses.

Vascular plants are divided between seedless and seed-bearing.

Seedless vascular plants

These are more primitive. The main 2 groups are:

Lycophytes, which are “club mosses.” About 1000 species.

Ferns, horsetails, and relatives. They live in desert habitats and there are about 20,000 species.

Seed-bearing Vascular Plants

These come in two groups called Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

Gymnosperms, “naked seeds”

come in 4 divisions:

1) D. Cycadophyta

These are “palm-like” plants that live in tropical habitats. There are about 130 species and some produce a neurotoxin called BMAA.

2) D. Ginkgophyta

Only one species exist called the Ginkgo biloba tree which are very resilient.

3) Gnetophyta

There are about 70 species and most are low lying desert plants. They have some of the largest leaves which divide into straps.

4) D. Coniferophyta

There are about 600 species and many are large trees, evergreens, and may produce pine cones. This includes cypress, Redwood, and giant sequoia<3

Angiosperms “flowering plants”

These produce flowers and there are about 250,000 species.

4 groups include:

1) Basal angiosperms

100 species in all. Includes Amborella, star-anise, and water lillies.

2) Magnoliids

8,000 species. Includes magnolia, black pepper, and laurels.

3) Eudicots. “True dicots.” 170,000 species.

4) monocots. 70,000 species.

Kingdom Fungi Part II

There are five divisions of Fungi.

The first Division is D. Chytridiomycota.

"Chytrids" are considered the most primitive fungi. There are about 1,000 species and many are aquatic in fresh water. Usually coenocytic and have little mycelium.

They can also cause “chytridiomycosis” in amphibians.

The second is D. Zygomycota.

These fungi produce zygosporangia which are temporary  reproductive structures that produce spores. Spherical spores are formed during (a)sexual reproduction. Most are terrestial and are important decomposers. They may live in soil or on a decaying plant or animal material.

The third is called D. Glomeromycota

These fungi highly rely of a symbiotic relationship with plant roots. They form arbuscles(mycorrhizal), which are branched “tufts” of hyphae growing inside a vascular plant root cells.

The fourth is D. Ascomycota.

Also known as “sac fungi.” This is a diverse group of about 35,000-64,000 species. It includes yeast, truffles, morrells(the 1st pic), and cup fungi(the 2nd pic).

Most produce of a fruiting body known as ascocarp for spore, ascospores, reproduction. A “mushroom-like” structure.

Many are pathogenic, causing apple scab, black knots, athlete’s foot, and ring worm.

some are useful for science and can be used to make penicillin. Also used to flavor cheese.

The last division is D. Basidiomycota.

The “mushrooms.” About 30,000 species. They have a “fruiting body” or called a  basidiocarp, a temporary reproductive structure for making spores. Some are edible, some are poisonous, and some make you hallucinate :)

Summary of divsions:


Asexual Reproduction:

Haploid hyphae have vesicles and after a series of mitotic events, chains of haploid spores(haploid) are formed. When the spores are released, they can grow into haploid mycelia.

Spores > Hyphae> Mycelium

Sexual Reproduction:

+ haphae and -hyphae fuse and the nuclei fuse in a process called karyogamy, occuring while the cell’s membrane shapes into an ascus, an elongated, oval shaped cell. The zygote goes through meiosis and spores are created and dispersed.

Kingdom Fungi

Fungi are eukaryotic and multicellular organisms(excluding yeast). They are also heterotropic, meaning that they digest outside the body and then absorb nutrients. They are the base of the food chain, also known as decomposers, and they eat dead organic material.

The cells of fungi usually grow tubular and thread-like into structures called Hyphae. Some contain nuclei at their tips.

Mycelium is a mass of Hyphae. It can be large, grow fast, and even cover acres of land!

It can be made of two different kinds of Hyphae: Septate and Coenoytic.

This is Septate Hyphae. Notice the septum’s. This means that there are individual cells and the nuclei are separate.

This is Coenocytic Hyphae. There is no separation between cells.

Hyphae is covered with the cell wall, which is made of Chitin, which is similar to the exoskeleton of insects!

Relationships with Plants

Fungus often have  symbiotic “mutual” relationships with plants. Fungus absorbs nutrients from plants such as nitrates and phosphates from the soil and give it to plants. In return, fungus receive glucose from plants.

Mycorrhiza is symbiotic(and sometimes weakly pathogenic) with the roots of vascular plants. 90% of all plants have Mycorrhiza on their roots.


“Each of us literally chooses, by his way of attending to things, what sort of universe he shall appear to himself to inhabit.”
- William James


“Each of us literally chooses, by his way of attending to things, what sort of universe he shall appear to himself to inhabit.”

- William James


Interactive Human Brain in 3D
Heath­line now offers a cool inter­ac­tive Human Brain in 3D you can play with, as part of their over­all Body Maps. 


Interactive Human Brain in 3D

Heath­line now offers a cool inter­ac­tive Human Brain in 3D you can play with, as part of their over­all Body Maps

Invisible Illness Week

Reblog, reach out, and remember, you are not alone.

1. The illness I live with is… 

Major depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

2. I was diagnosed in the year… 

2008, 2011

3. But I’ve had symptoms since…

Debilitating OCD since junior high, which goes along with anxiety. Always had a low self-esteem for as long as I remember.

4. The biggest adjustment I’ve had to make…

Acknowledging issues that I don’t want to face.

5. Most people assume…

That I am reserved.

6. The hardest part about mornings is….

Having to do it everyday, having to force myself to eat something, etc..

7. My favorite TV show is… 


8. A gadget I couldn’t live without is…. 


9. The hardest part about nights are…. 

Thinking about scary or upsetting things when I am trying to sleep.

10. Each day I take ___ vitamins and pills…

Welbutrin. I used to take a multivitamin and intend to again in the future, but they are expensive.

11. Regarding alternative treatments…

Medication, therapy, taking up hobbies.

12. If I had to choose between an invisible illness and a visible one, I would choose…

Depends on the illness.

13. Regarding working and a career…


14. People would be surprised to know… 

That sometimes I feel like I am trying to break out of my own body.

15. The hardest thing to accept about my new reality is…

Knowing that I have to go through every single day with so little motivation or will power.

16. Something I never thought I could do with my illness that I did was….

Gee, hmm, I guess it can give me inspiration to do something “artsy”.

17. The commercials about my illness…

Are kind of scary when they offer free trials on medication.

18. Something I really miss doing since I was diagnosed is….

Ignore it.

19. It was really hard to give up….

Still trying to give those things up. Vicodin, I will miss you. And other self-harm methods.

20. A new hobby I’ve taken up since my diagnosis..

Music! Singing and violin, mostly. I think some kind of art therapy, something you can watch yourself grow in, is imperative.

21. If I could have one day of feeling completely normal again, I would..

Be more proactive about things I’d like to do and need to do.

22. My illness has taught me…

That I am blessed with good friends.

23. Want to know a secret? One thing people say that really gets under my skin is..

"Just stop doing it, hehe."

24. But I love it when people…

Give me good advice on how to cope with things they have had to deal with that are similar or the same as my issues. I have no coping skills of my own.

25. My favorite motto that gets me through tough times is…  I’ll get back to you on that one..

26. When someone is diagnosed, I like to tell them…

My ears are open.

27. Something that has surprised me about living with an illness is…

How much it is keeping me from doing the things I want to do.

28. The nicest thing someone did for me when I wasn’t feeling well was…

Listening and sharing.

29. The fact that you read this list makes me feel…

Acknowleding that having to live day to day is a scary thought for me.